References

Where does the information come from?

It is important that you keep track of your sources when you write an assignment. It must be quite clear when you are including the work of others in your text. This is a guide for how to cite sources in study assignments.

Cite the source

Why do I have to cite the source?

Referencing is about how to handle the sources you use in your written assignments. It is common practice to cite the knowledge you make use of. When you cite a source, you give credit to the author and avoid plagiarism. Furthermore, you make it easy for your teacher and co-examiner to find the material you have used in your assignment. In short, you must always be able to document where the source you use in the assignment comes from.

As general rule, any knowledge from books, reports, pictures, articles, interviews, assignments (including your own!) and statistics etc. must be cited. General knowledge, such as the financial crisis of 2008 or the fact that the earth is round, should of course not be cited.

Cite your source

How do i cite a source correctly?

Sources may be cited in many ways. The most important thing is that you are consistent. Be aware, however, of any standard of referencing preferred by your teacher/study programme.

One of the most popular referencing standards is Harvard. If you use the Harvard referencing standard, citations must appear directly in the text and include the author name(s) and year as well as page number(s) unless you are referring to the entire book.

So, if you choose Harvard, your references will not be in the form of foot notes, but rather integrated like this:

As an entrepreneur, you will undoubtedly meet challenges; competitors on the market, recession and lack of capital. But if you want to be successful, you have to put your head into the lions mouth and take risks (Churchill, 1900, p. 388)

You may also cite your source as an even more integrated part of your text:

As an entrepreneur, you will meet challenges; competitors on the market, recessions and lack of capital. But according to Winston Churchill (1900, p. 388), you must put your head into the lion's mouth if the performance is to be a success, so taking risks are part of the game. 

Sometimes it is a good idea to use a direct quotation, in particular if the quotation is so precise, brief and clear that it may be difficult to rephrase. The quotation must be in quotes followed by the name of the author(s). If the quotation is longer than 3 lines, indent it from the rest of your text. When you cite a source, make an exact copy of the quote. Do not attempt to correct the spelling or punctuation. In addition, you must always make it clear if a citation has been translated.

“The general must not be afraid to brave disaster. But how tolerant the arm-chair critics should be of men who try coups and fail! You must put your head into the lion's mouth if the performance is to be a success.” (Churchill, 1900, p. 389)

Each time you cite a source in your text, you must include the full citation in your bibliography. In other words, it must be easy for the reader to see the citation in the text and find the full citation in the bibliography.

"Always cite the sources you use"

"Give credit to the author(s)"

"The citation must be placed in the text immediately after the quotation"

"There are many ways to cite a source – be consistent"

Bibliography

How do I make a correct bibliography?

Your bibliography is a list of all the sources you have used in your assignment. The bibliography should only contain the sources that you cite in your assignment. Sources that are cited more than once should only be listed once in the bibliography.

Your bibliography should come at the end of the assignment, typically on the page after the conclusion. The list must be set in alphabetical order by the surname of the author.

There is a difference between the way a book, an article or a website are written in the bibliography:

"All sources must appear in the bibliography"

"The bibliography must be listed alphabetically"

  • Books

    1. Author/Editor (add (Ed.) after the name if it is an editor)
    2. Publication year
    3. Titel (in italics)
    4. Serial title and number (if the book is part of a series) *
    5. Edition (if not the first edition) *
    6. Place of publishing (if there is more than one, use the first)
    7. Publishers
    8. Page number/chapter*

    * = if applicable
    Examples of citations...
    In the text

    Theories of science arose in the Renaissance in the aftermath of the weakening of the church (Okasha, 2016, p. 33)

    In the bibliography

    Okasha, Samir. 2016. Philosophy of Science - a Very Short Introduction. 2nd. ed. Oxford: University Press.

    1. Author of the article/chapter
    2. Publication year
    3. Title followed by in:
    4. Editor (always place (Ed.) after the name*
    5. Title of the book (in italics)
    6. Serial title and number (if the book is part of a series)*
    7. Edition (if not the first edition)*
    8. Place of publishing (if there is more than one, use the first)
    9. Publishers
    10. Page number/chapter*

    * = if applicable
    Examples of citations...
    In the text

    A company should set some strategic goals to ensure a favourable position in relation to the five threats (Porter, 1989, p. 140)

    In the bibliography

    Porter, M. E. 1989. How competitive forces shape strategy i Asch, D., Bowman, C. (Ed.) Readings in strategic management. London: Macmillan. pp.133-143

    1. Author
    2. Year of publication
    3. Title of article
    4. Newspaper/magazine title (in italics)
    5. Release date
    6. Page number
    Examples of citations...
    In the text

    Architects worldwide are taking inspiration from ancient building methods (Kaye, 2012)

    In the bibliography

    Kaye, L. 2012.
    Traditional architecture offers a strong foundation for green building in: The Guardian : Built Environment. 15. January, p. 14.

    1. Author(s)
    2. Year of publication
    3. Title of article
    4. Title of the journal (in italics)
    5. Volume number
    6. Issue number
    7. Page number
    Examples of citations...
    In the text

    There is no simple linear
    causality in the relationship between education and social change (Sterling et al., 2018)

    In the bibliography

    Sterling, S., Dawson, J., Warwick, P. 2018. Transforming
    Sustainability Education
    at the Creative Edge of the
    Mainstream: A Case Study
    of Schumacher College in Journal of Transformative Education . Vol. 16, iss. 4, p. 323-343.

    1. Author/Editor (use business/organisational name if no unique author has been mentioned)
    2. Year of publication (if no precise date has been mentioned, use n.d.)
    3. Title (in italics)
    4. URL
    5. Retrieved (date)
    Examples of citations...
    In the text

    If you are involved with close-range work, you have an increased risk of developing shortsightedness (Bek, 2016)

    In the bibliography

    Bek, T. 2016. Nærsynethed. https://www.sundhed.dk/borger

    /patienthaandbogen/oejne/sygdomme/brydningsfejl/naersynethed/. Retrieved on 13 November 2017

    1. Author/initials (use business/organisational name if no unique author has been mentioned)
    2. Year of publication (if no precise year has been mentioned, use n.d.)
    3. Title (in italics)
    4. Social media type (Facebook, Twitter etc.)
    5. URL
    6. Retrieved (date)
    Examples of citations...
    In the text

    KEA has, apart from turing digital with regards to teaching, also turned to digital social activities (KEA, 2020)

    In the bibliography

    KEA Copenhagen School of Design and Technology, 2020. Helena savner sine medstuderende, undervisere og livet på KEA. https://da-dk.facebook.com/kea.dk/. Retrieved on 02. June 2020.

    1. Author/Editor (add (Ed.) after the name if it is an editor)
    2. Year of publication
    3. Title (in italics)
    4. Format (e-book)
    5. URL
    6. Retrieved (date)

    NB: E-books usually do not contain page numbers. Therefore, when you refer to a specific section or citation from an e-book, you must refer to the chapter.

    Examples of citations...
    In the text

    The transition to adulthood has become more complex in line with globalisation and a change in expectations for future working life (Lloyd, 2005)

    In the bibliography

    Lloyd, CB (ed.) 2005. Growing up global: The changing transitions for adulthood in developing countries. E-book. http://www.nap.edu/books/11174/html/index.html. Retrieved on 5 May 2017

    1. Author
    2. Standard number
    3. Year
    4. Title (in italics)
    5. Publisher
    Examples of citations...
    In the text

    Toys that produce high impulse sound levels must be provided with a specific warning (Danish Standard, 2018)

    In the bibliography

    Danish Standard. 2018. DS/EN 71-1:2014+A1:2018. Legetøj – Sikkerhedskrav – Del 1: Mekaniske og fysiske egenskaber. Danish Standard.

    1. Author (name of the author if specified, otherwise the organisation is written as author)
    2. Year
    3. Title (in italics)
    4. URL
    5. Retrieval date
    Examples of citations...
    In the text

    Danish consumers have an increasing interest in locally produced and organic food (Euromonitor International, 2018)

    In the bibliography

    Euromonitor International. 2018. Consumer Lifestyles in Denmark.   http://www.portal.euromonitor.com/. Retrieved on January 15th 2018.

  • Bøger

    1. Forfatter/Redaktør (Hvis det er en redaktør sæt da (Red.) efter navnet
    2. Publiceringsår
    3. Titel (skal stå med kursiv)
    4. Serie titel og nummer (hvis bogen er en del af en serie)*
    5. Udgave (hvis der ikke er første udgave)*
    6. Publiceringsted (hvis der er mere end et sted, brug da første sted)
    7. Forlag
    8. Sidetal/kapitel*

    * = angives kun hvis relevant

    Eksempel på henvisning...
    I teksten
    Videnskabsteorier opstod i kølvandet på kirkens svækkelse i renæssancen (Beck Holm, 2018, s.33)

    I Litteraturlisten
    Beck Holm, A. 2018. Videnskab i virkeligheden – En grundbog i videnskabsteori. 2. udg. København: Samfundslitteratur

    1. Forfatter af artiklen/kapitel
    2. Publiceringsår
    3. Titel efterfulgt af i:
    4. Redaktør (sæt altid (Red.) efter navnet*
    5. Titel på bog (dette skal stå i kursiv)
    6. Serie titel og nummer (hvis bogen er en del af en serie)*
    7. Udgave (hvis der ikke er første udgave)*
    8. Publiceringsted (hvis der er mere end et sted, brug da første sted)
    9. Forlag
    10. Sidetal/kapitel*

    * = angives kun hvis relevant

    Eksempel på henvisning...
    I teksten
    En virksomhed bør sætte strategiske mål, som placerer den fordelagtigt i forhold til de fem trusler (Porter, 1989, s.140)

    I Litteraturlisten
    Porter, M. E. 1989. How competitive forces shape strategy i Asch, D., Bowman, C. (Red.) Readings in strategic management. London: Macmillan. s.133-143

    1. Forfatter
    2. Publiceringsår
    3. Titel på artikel
    4. Titel på avis/magasin (skal skrives i kursiv)
    5. Udgivelsesdato
    6. Sidetal

    Eksempel på henvisning...
    I teksten
    Flere kommuner har fået øjnene op for, at bæredygtigt byggeri også kan have økonomiske fordele (Malmgreen, 2019)

    I Litteraturlisten
    Malmgreen, H. 2019. Bæredygtigt byggeri giver millioner på bundlinjen i Jyllands-Posten Sektion: Erhverv. 15. januar, s. 14.

    1. Forfatter
    2. Publiceringsår
    3. Titel på artikel
    4. Titel på tidsskrift (skal skrives i kursiv)
    5. Volume nummer
    6. Issue nummer
    7. Sidetal

    Eksempel på henvisning...
    I teksten
    Usikkerhed omkring fremtiden kan vise sig yderst skadelig for økonomien (Hove Ravn, 2018)

    I Litteraturlisten
    Hove Ravn, S. 2018. Politisk usikkerhed har økonomiske konsekvenser i Altinget. Vol. 20 (november 2018) s. 72

    1. Forfatter/Redaktør (brug virksomheds-/organisationsnavn, hvis der ikke er nævnt en entydig forfatter)
    2. Publiceringsår (hvis der ikke er nævnt en entydig dato, brug da n.d.)
    3. Titel (Skrives i kursiv) 
    4. URL
    5. Lokaliseret (dato)

    Eksempel på henvisning...
    I teksten
    Arbejder man meget med nærarbejde, har man øget risiko for at udvikle nærsynethed (Bek, 2016)

    I Litteraturlisten
    Bek, T. 2016. Nærsynethed. https://www.sundhed.dk/borger/patienthaandbogen/oejne/sygdomme/brydningsfejl/naersynethed/. Lokaliseret d. 13.11.2017  

    1. Forfatter/Redaktør (Hvis det er en redaktør sæt da (Red.) efter navnet
    2. Publiceringsår
    3. Title (skal stå med kursiv)
    4. Format (e-bog)
    5. URL
    6. Lokaliseret (dato)

    NB: E-bøger indeholder ofte ikke sidetal. For at referere til et bestemt afsnit eller citere fra en e-bog skal du derfor henvise til kapitlet.

    Eksempel på henvisning...
    I teksten
    Overgangen til voksenlivet er blevet mere kompleks i takt med globaliseringen og ændrede forventninger til det fremtidige arbejdsliv (Lloyd, 2005)

    I Litteraturlisten
    Lloyd, CB (red.) 2005. Growing up global: The changing transitions for adulthood in developing countries. E-bog. http://www.nap.edu/books/11174/html/index.html. Lokaliseret 5. maj 2017

    1. Forfatter
    2. Standardnummer
    3. Årstal
    4. Titel (skrives i kursiv)
    5. Udgiver

    Eksempel på henvisning...
    I teksten
    Legetøj der frembringer højimpulslydniveauer skal være forsynet med en specifik advarsel (Dansk Standard, 2018)

    I Litteraturlisten
    Dansk Standard. 2018. DS/EN 71-1:2014+A1:2018. Legetøj – Sikkerhedskrav – Del 1: Mekaniske og fysiske egenskaber. Dansk Standard.

    1. Forfatter (forfatterens navn hvis angivet, ellers skrives organisationen som forfatter)
    2. Årstal
    3. Titel (skrives i kursiv)
    4. URL
    5. Lokaliseringsdato

    Eksempel på henvisning...
    I teksten
    De danske forbrugere har stigende interesse for lokalt producerede og økologiske fødevarer (Euromonitor International, 2018)

    I Litteraturlisten
    Euromonitor International. 2018. Consumer Lifestyles in Denmark. Lokaliseret via http://www.portal.euromonitor.com/. 15.01.2018

FAQs

What if...

  • There is more than three authors?

    Indicate the first author's surname, initial, and type al. as an abbreviation for the remainder. For example: (Mogensen, P. et al. 1990)

    NB: In the bibliography, you must include the names of all the authors.

  • Write the name of the institution where you would otherwise write the surname of the author.
    For instance: (Red Cross Denmark, 2017)

  • Come by the library and ask for help.

Images and illustrations

Which images can I use?

When you use other people's artwork and images, it is important to observe the rules on copyright and author’s rights. It is far from all images you may use as you see fit, and many images are protected by copyright.

However, there are image databases you can use free of charge. Try to google images with creative commons rights or use the library database Colourbox.. Remember that no matter where you find the images, always double check that they can be used without the author’s permission.

Images and illustrations that are not your own must always be referenced in a separate image list which comes after the bibliography. Therefore, when you refer to an image in your text, you must specify an image number and, possibly, a caption. The number will help the reader find the full citation and information about the owner in the image list.

Examples of using images in the text:

Image 1. Tivoli's main entrance in nineteenth century Copenhagen.

In the image list, you write the full reference:

Image 1. (Københavns Museum, Christian Rasmus Neuhaus, 1862 – 1894). Photography of Tivoli's main entrance, Copenhagen.

"Images must always be referenced"

"Images and illustrations must have their own image list"

Here you can find tools and further inspiration. Please note that all the services are free of charge, but some require that you register as a user.